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WTO争端解决案例
  • 欧盟诉美国进口限制的纠纷
  • United States — Import measures on certain products from the European Communities (Brought by EC)
  • 文书
    United States - Import Measures on Certain Products from the European Communities - AB-2000-9 - Report of the Appellate Body
    提纲
    (Synopsis)
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    相关条款
    (Articles)
  • DSU 03.07
  • DSU 21.05
  • DSU 22.06
  • DSU 23.02.a
  • GATT 1994 II.01.a
  • GATT 1994 II.01.b
  • 机构
    (Bodies)
  • 上诉机构 (Appellate Body)
  • 争端解决机构 (Dispute Settlement Body)
  • Panel WTO : United States - Import Measures on Certain Products from the European Communities
  • 涉案国家
    (Countries)
  • 多米尼加 (Dominica)
  • 厄瓜多尔 (Ecuador)
  • 欧盟 (European Union)
  • 印度 (India)
  • 牙买加 (Jamaica)
  • 日本 (Japan)
  • 美国 (United States)
  • 涉案产品
    (Products)
  • 香蕉 (bananas)
  • 主题词与国家
    (Subject_Country)
  • 进口税 (CUSTOMS DUTIES) - 美国 (United States)
  • 争端解决 (DISPUTE SETTLEMENT) - 美国 (United States)
  • 进口限制 (IMPORT RESTRICTIONS) - 美国 (United States)
  • 专家组 (PANEL) - 美国 (United States)
  • 贸易屏障 (TRADE BARRIERS) - 美国 (United States)
  • 主题
    (Subjects)
  • 争端解决 (DISPUTE SETTLEMENT)
  • 进口限制 (IMPORT RESTRICTIONS)
  • 进口税 (CUSTOMS DUTIES)
  • 贸易屏障 (TRADE BARRIERS)
  • 专家组 (PANEL)
  • 文书类别
    (Types)
  • 关键性文件 (Key document)
  • 报告 (Report)
  • 全文

    WORLD TRADE

    ORGANIZATION

    WT/DS165/AB/R

    11 December 2000

    (00-5330)

    Original: English

    UNITED STATES - IMPORT MEASURES ON CERTAIN PRODUCTS

    FROM THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

    AB-2000-9

    Report of the Appellate Body

    I. Introduction 1

    II. Arguments of the Participants 4

    A. Claims of Error by the European Communities - Appellant 4

    1. The Measure at Issue 4

    2. The Mandate of Arbitrators Appointed Under Article 22.6 of the DSU 4

    3. The Effect of DSB Authorization to Suspend Concessions or Other Obligations 5

    B. Arguments of the United States - Appellee 6

    1. The Measure at Issue 6

    2. The Mandate of Arbitrators Appointed Under Article 22.6 of the DSU 6

    3. The Effect of DSB Authorization to Suspend Concessions or Other Obligations 7

    C. Claims of Error by the United States - Appellant 8

    1. Articles II:1(a) and II:1(b), first sentence, of the GATT 1994 8

    2. Articles 23.2(a), 3.7 and 21.5 of the DSU 9

    (a) Article 23.2(a) of the DSU 9

    (b) Article 3.7 of the DSU 9

    (c) Article 21.5 of the DSU 10

    D. Arguments of the European Communities - Appellee 10

    1. Articles II:1(a) and II:1(b), first sentence, of the GATT 1994 10

    2. Articles 23.2(a), 3.7 and 21.5 of the DSU 11

    (a) Article 23.2(a) of the DSU 11

    (b) Article 3.7 of the DSU 11

    (c) Article 21.5 of the DSU 12

    III. Arguments of the Third Participants 12

    A. Dominica and St. Lucia 12

    1. The Measure at Issue 12

    2. The Mandate of Arbitrators Appointed Under Article 22.6 of the DSU 12

    B. Ecuador 13

    C. India 13

    D. Jamaica 13

    E. Japan 14

    1. The Mandate of Arbitrators Appointed Under Article 22.6 of the DSU 14

    2. Articles II:1(a) and II:1(b), first sentence, of the GATT 1994 14

    3. Articles 23.2(a), 3.7 and 21.5 of the DSU 14

    IV. Issues Raised in this Appeal 15

    V. The Measure at Issue 16

    VI. The Mandate of Arbitrators Appointed Under Article 22.6 of the DSU 24

    VII. The Effect of DSB Authorization to Suspend Concessions or Other Obligations 26

    VIII. Articles II:1(a) and II:1(b), first sentence, of the GATT 1994 28

    IX. Articles 23.2(a), 3.7 and 21.5 of the DSU 30

    (a) Article 23.2(a) of the DSU 30

    (b) Article 3.7 of the DSU 33

    (c) Article 21.5 of the DSU 34

    X. Findings and Conclusions 36

    WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

    APPELLATE BODY

    United States - Import Measures on Certain Products from the European Communities

    European Communities, Appellant/Appellee

    United States, Appellant/Appellee

    Dominica, Third Participant

    Ecuador, Third Participant

    India, Third Participant

    Jamaica, Third Participant

    Japan, Third Participant

    St. Lucia, Third Participant

    AB-2000-9

    Present:

    Bacchus, Presiding Member

    Lacarte-Mur? Member

    Taniguchi, Member

    I.Introduction

    1.The European Communities and the United States appeal from certain issues of law and legal interpretations in the Panel Report, United States - Import Measures on Certain Products from the European Communities (the "Panel Report").1 The Panel was established under the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (the "DSU") to consider a complaint relating to measures taken by the United States with respect to certain imports from the European Communities.

    2.The background to this dispute is set out in detail in the Panel Report.2 On 25 September 1997, the Dispute Settlement Body (the "DSB") adopted the reports of the panel and the Appellate Body in European Communities - Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas ("European Communities - Bananas").3 The DSB recommended that the European Communities bring its banana import regime into conformity with its obligations under the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (the "WTO Agreement"). On 1 January 1999, the period of time for implementation, established under Article 21.3(c) of the DSU, expired. At the DSB meeting of 2 February 1999, the United States alleged that the European Communities had failed to bring its banana import regime into compliance with the recommendations and rulings of the DSB in this dispute, and requested authorization to suspend the application of concessions or other obligations in accordance with Article 22.2 of the DSU. At the same meeting, the European Communities requested that the level of the suspension of concessions or other obligations proposed by the United States be referred to arbitration by the original panelists, in accordance with Article 22.6 of the DSU.

    3.In accordance with the 60-day time-frame provided for in Article 22.6 of the DSU, the decision of the arbitrators appointed under Article 22.6 was to be circulated on 2 March 1999. On that date, the arbitrators informed the United States and the European Communities that they were unable to circulate their decision, and requested additional information from the parties.4 On 4 March 1999, the Director of the Trade Compliance Division of the United States Customs Service issued a memorandum entitled "European Sanctions", in which he instructed Customs Area and Port Directors to take certain action with respect to designated products imported from the European Communities, with effect from 3 March 1999.

    4.The Article 22.6 arbitrators circulated their decision on 9 April 1999.5 On 19 April 1999, the United States requested, and received, authorization from the DSB to suspend the application of concessions or other obligations in the amount determined by the arbitrators. Subsequent to this authorization, the United States imposed 100 per cent customs duties on designated products imported from the European Communities, an action referred to in this dispute as the "19 April action".

    5.The Panel identified the measure at issue in this dispute as the "increased bonding requirements" imposed by the United States on a list of products imported from the European Communities as of 3 March 1999, and called this the "3 March Measure". In its Report circulated to Members of the World Trade Organization (the "WTO") on 17 July 2000, the Panel concluded:

    Although the 3 March Measure is no longer in existence, we conclude that:

    (a)The 3 March Measure was seeking to redress a WTO violation and was thus covered by Article 23.1 of the DSU; when it put in place the 3 March Measure the United States did not abide by the rules of the DSU, in violation of Article 23.1.

    (b)By putting into place the 3 March Measure, the United States made a unilateral determination that the EC implementing measure violated the WTO, contrary to Articles 23.2(a) and 21.5, first sentence. In doing so the United States did not abide by the DSU and thus violated Article 23.1 together with Article 23.2(a) and 21.5 of the DSU;

    (c)The increased bonding requirements of the 3 March Measure as such led to violations of Articles II:1(a) and II:1(b), first sentence; the increased interest charges, costs and fees resulting from the 3 March Measure violated Article II:1(b) last sentence. The 3 March Measure also violated Article I of GATT; and

    (d)In view of our conclusions in paragraph (c) above, the 3 March Measure constituted a suspension of concessions or other obligations within the meaning of Articles 3.7, 22.6 and 23.2(c) imposed without any DSB authorization and during the ongoing Article 22.6 arbitration process. In doing so the United States did not abide by the DSU and thus violated Article 23.1 together with Articles 3.7, 22.6 and 23.2(c) of the DSU.6

    The Panel recommended that the DSB request the United States to bring its measure into conformity with its obligations under the WTO Agreement.7

    6.On 12 September 2000, the European Communities notified the DSB of its decision to appeal certain issues of law covered in the Panel Report and certain legal interpretations developed by the Panel, pursuant to Article 16.4 of the DSU8, and filed a Notice of Appeal with the Appellate Body, pursuant to Rule 20 of the Working Procedures for Appellate Review (the "Working Procedures"). On 22 September 2000, the European Communities filed an appellant's submission.9 The United States filed its own appellant's submission on 27 September 2000.10 Both the European Communities and the United States filed appellee's submissions on 9 October 2000.11 On the same day, Ecuador, India, Jamaica, and Japan each filed separate third participant's submissions, while Dominica and St. Lucia filed a joint third participant's submission.12

    7.The oral hearing in the appeal was held on 18 October 2000.13 The participants and the third participants presented oral arguments and responded to questions put to them by the Members of the Appellate Body Division hearing the appeal.

    II.Arguments of the Participants

    A.Claims of Error by the European Communities - Appellant

    1.The Measure at Issue

    8.The European Communities submits that the measure at issue in this dispute, to which the Panel refers as the 3 March Measure, included not only an increase in bonding requirements imposed on a list of products imported from the European Communities, but also an increase in the duty liability incurred upon the importation of the listed products. The European Communities considers that an increase in bonding requirements is, by necessity, based on an increase in the underlying customs duties, since a bonding requirement is ancillary to, and cannot be legally separated from, the underlying primary obligation.

    9.According to the European Communities, there is no difference, in law or in fact, between a "contingent" increase in duty liability that is operated with the uncertain prospect of a return to bound rates at some later occasion, and an unqualified increase in duty liability. The European Communities argues that nothing changed in real terms for the products which remained on the reduced list published on 19 April 1999: their legal situation remained the same as before that date in that they were subject to an increased duty liability, with the only difference being that it was no longer called a "contingent" one.

    10.The European Communities disagrees with the Panel's finding that the 19 April action, i.e., the imposition of 100 per cent duties, was not included in the Panel's terms of reference. The European Communities contends that the 19 April action and the 3 March Measure are not legally distinct measures and that, in fact, the 19 April action is a continuation of the 3 March Measure, and, therefore, falls within the terms of reference of the Panel. The European Communities submits that its request for the establishment of a panel referred specifically to the 19 April action.

    11.Finally, the European Communities contends that, in addition to the incorrect and artificial distinction the Panel makes between the 3 March Measure, and its confirmation on 19 April 1999, the Panel also erred in finding that "the 3 March Measure is no longer in existence".

    2.The Mandate of Arbitrators Appointed Under Article 22.6 of the DSU

    12.The European Communities submits that the Panel erroneously considered that the WTO-consistency of an implementing measure can be determined in arbitration proceedings under Article 22.6 of the DSU. In the view of the European Communities, the reasoning of the Panel creates basic systemic problems which severely affect the carefully balanced results of the Uruguay Round.

    13.The European Communities submits that the text of Article 22.7 charges the arbitrator with one main task, and two more possible tasks. The main task is to determine whether the level of the suspension of concessions or other obligations is equivalent to the level of nullification or impairment. The arbitrator may also determine whether the proposed suspension of concessions or other obligations is allowed under the covered agreements, and whether the principles and procedures set out in Article 22.3 of the DSU have been followed.

    14.The European Communities asserts that the Panel's reading of the relevant procedural provisions of the DSU entirely ignores the fundamental difference between the role of the parties to a dispute in a panel procedure to determine the WTO-consistency of a contested measure, and the role of the parties in an arbitration procedure under Article 22.6 of the DSU. The European Communities also argues that the Member requesting an arbitration procedure under Article 22.6 would have its rights of defence seriously undermined if it had to develop a fully fledged defence of the WTO-consistency of its measure. Further, the European Communities notes that there can be no appeal from an Article 22.6 arbitrator's decision. The European Communities also submits that panel and Appellate Body procedures provide for the active participation of third parties, unlike arbitration proceedings. The European Communities also notes that decisions of arbitrators are not subject to adoption by the DSB. The European Communities, therefore, submits that Article 22.6 arbitration proceedings ensure none of these procedural rights and guarantees, and the Panel's interpretation should be reversed.

    15.The European Communities also considers that the interpretation by the Panel of the terms "these dispute settlement procedures, including wherever possible resort to the original panel", in Article 21.5 of the DSU, is incorrect. According to the European Communities, a panel procedure is the ordinary "dispute settlement procedure" in the sense of Article 21.5. In the view of the European Communities, it is apparent that the terms "including wherever possible resort to the original panel" constitute nothing other than an adjustment of the ordinary panel procedure.

    3.The Effect of DSB Authorization to Suspend Concessions or Other Obligations

    16.The European Communities submits that the Panel incorrectly considered that, as a general rule, once a Member imposes DSB-authorized suspension of concessions or other obligations, that Member's measure is ipso facto WTO-compatible because it has received DSB authorization. According to the European Communities, DSB authorization is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to legally implement the suspension of concessions or other obligations.

    B.Arguments of the United States - Appellee

    1.The Measure at Issue

    17.The United States submits that the Panel was correct in finding, as a factual matter, that the 3 March Measure consisted only of increased bonding requirements legally distinct from the 19 April action, which imposed increased customs duties. The United States contends that, while this factual finding is beyond the scope of appellate review, it is amply supported by the evidence of the actual legal status of the 3 March Measure under United States law.

    18.The United States asserts that, on 4 March 1999, the European Communities requested consultations with respect to the 3 March Measure. On that date, the United States had not yet taken the 19 April action. According to the United States, the 19 April action could, therefore, not have been the measure identified in either the request for consultations, or in the subsequent request for the establishment of a panel. As a result, the 19 April action could not have been within the terms of reference of the Panel.

    19.The United States submits that, in arguing that WTO law does not distinguish between an increase in "contingent" duty liability and an increase in actual duty liability, the European Communities incorrectly assumes, with no evidence in United States law or regulation, that the 3 March Measure increased the actual duties, and that the only changes made on 19 April 1999 were to remove duty liabilities already imposed. Moreover, the European Communities assumes, with no basis in United States law or regulation, that "contingent liability" exists under United States law.

    20.Finally, the United States submits that, before the Panel, it explained that the increased bonding requirements of 3 March 1999 were removed for entries of merchandise which were not to be included on the 19 April 1999 list within a few days of the arbitrators' decision of 9 April 1999, and were removed on 19 April 1999 for all remaining products. The United States, therefore, submits that the Panel's statement that the 3 March Measure "is no longer in existence" is correct.

    2.The Mandate of Arbitrators Appointed Under Article 22.6 of the DSU

    21.The United States contends that the Panel need not, and should not, have reached the issue of the relationship between Articles 21.5 and 22 of the DSU. Firstly, the United States points out that Members of the WTO broadly recognize that this relationship requires clarification. The United States considers that it is for the membership of the WTO to provide such clarification. Secondly, the United States argues that the Panel need not have reached the issue of the relationship because this issue is not implicated by the measure at issue, nor by the Panel's analysis of how a violation of Article 21.5 is established.

    22.The United States submits, however, that, while the Panel need not, and should not, have reached the issue of the relationship between Articles 21.5 and 22, it ultimately reached the correct substantive conclusion, namely, that an Article 22.6 arbitrator can determine the WTO-consistency of an implementing measure in determining the equivalent level of suspension of concessions or other obligations.

    23.The United States asserts that an analysis of the text of Article 22 supports the Panel's finding. The text of Article 22.2 contains no reference to either Articles 21 or 23 of the DSU. Had the drafters intended to make the suspension of concessions or other obligations conditional upon the completion of another proceeding, they "would not have written the text of Article 22 to refer all deadlines under Article 22 back to the end of the 'reasonable period of time' for implementation" provided for in Article 21.3 of the DSU.14

    24.The United States submits that Article 21.5 does not qualify the phrase "these dispute procedures", with the exception of providing for resort to the original panelists, wherever possible, and establishing an upper limit of 90 days for proceedings. There is, thus, no basis for excluding any dispute settlement procedure that could be used to determine the WTO-consistency of an implementing measure.

    25.The United States argues that, if, as the European Communities suggests, Article 21.5 requires that "ordinary" dispute settlement procedures apply, except as specifically provided in Article 21.5, this would lead to the absurd result that "referral to the panel" under Article 21.5 would have to be preceded by consultations, adding an addition

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